By William A. Johnson, Holt N. Parker

Classicists were sluggish to use the real advances within the means that literacy is considered in different disciplines (including particularly cognitive psychology, socio-linguistics, and socio-anthropology). nonetheless, historians of literacy proceed to depend on superseded paintings via classicists (mostly from the 1960's and 1970's) and feature little entry to the present reexamination of the traditional proof. This well timed quantity makes an attempt to formulate new attention-grabbing methods of conversing concerning the complete idea of literacy within the historical world—literacy no longer within the feel of even if 10% or 30% of individuals within the historical international may well learn or write, yet within the feel of text-oriented occasions embedded in a specific socio-cultural context.

The quantity is meant as a discussion board during which chosen best students reconsider from the floor up how scholars of classical antiquity may top procedure the query of literacy some time past, and the way that research may perhaps materially intersect with adjustments within the manner that literacy is now seen in different disciplines.

The consequence will provide readers new methods of considering particular parts of "literacy" in antiquity, similar to the character of private libraries, or what it capacity to be a bookseller in antiquity; new constructionist questions, equivalent to what constitutes examining groups and the way they style themselves; new takes at the public sphere, equivalent to how literacy intersects with commercialism, or with using public areas, or with the development of civic id; new essentialist questions, reminiscent of what "book" and "reading" symbolize in antiquity, why literate cultures enhance, or why literate cultures subject. The e-book derives from a convention (a Semple Symposium held in Cincinnati in April 2006) and comprises new paintings from the main remarkable students of literacy in antiquity (e.g., Simon Goldhill, Joseph Farrell, Peter White, and Rosalind Thomas).

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I, 117–119. Writing, Reading, Public and Private ‘‘Literacies’’ 33 those tried for homicide by the various homicide courts and convicted, those guilty of massacre or attempted tyranny. It is those guilty of particularly heinous crimes who are, not surprisingly, the ones exempt from the generous and forgiving impetus of the decree. These documents are various in form, but several do seem to be lists, some public, exemplary memorials, some held by officials. Many other lists were made, including lists of people, lists of property, lists of tribute contributions: some seem very deliberately designed to be easily legible.

Olson and Torrance 2001, xii, taken from the draft policy statement. 2. Olson and Torrance 2001, xiii, also from the policy statement. Note esp. ch. 9 in that volume on Pulaar literacy in a Senegalese community. 13 14 Situating Literacies advantages that that can bring. There is thus a fascinating tension between the obvious fact that writing makes certain activities possible or easier, and that different potentials are seized upon by different communities. In some, writing means bureaucracy, control, and oppression by the state, in others an enabling skill that frees an individual’s creative potential.

What is the line between just being able to manage, and being able to manipulate writing and written skills so well that someone can prosper? In ancient Athens, the line at which someone is seriously disadvantaged by poor writing skills can be drawn very low, but that does not mean that he was on an educational and political level with the elite. The educated elite, who overlapped considerably with the political leaders, had advanced literacy and cultural attainments that included mousike, music, literary knowledge, and literary composition.

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