By Daniel Olson

''A New studying of the Animal Apocalypse of one Enoch'' deals a whole theological research of this second-century BCE allegory and makes use of this because the foundation for a brand new remark at the textual content, provided in a clean translation

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Extra info for A New Reading of the Animal Apocalypse of 1 Enoch: ''''All Nations Shall be Blessed'''' / With a New Translation and Commentary

Example text

Most scholars read this passage as indicating a universal return of all humanity to a single, Adamic state; that is, a state of primordial integrity, a state of original goodness. The Jewish sheep and the Gentile wild animals become white cattle, the one species which represented all of humanity from Adam until the Flood (85:3–89:10), with the important difference that here at the end of all things, there are no more black cattle to commit crimes or red cattle to be victimized. Although the text is difficult, it would appear that the 20 chapter one mysterious white bull who appears in verse 37 serves as some sort of catalyst or harbinger of the universal transformation.

This is not apparent from the Ethiopic text, which has “bull” (ላህም፿) for both Abraham and Isaac in 89:11–12, but 4Q206 5 ii 12 clearly uses ‫ עגל‬for Isaac in v. 12 and probably did in v. 11 also (Milik, Books of Enoch, 242; Tiller, A Commentary, 274). Since Isaac was sixty years old when he fathered Jacob and Esau (Gen 25:26), the use of “calf” is unexpected and stands out as a very deliberate choice in 1 En 89:12, which narrates that event. 47 For a side-by-side comparison of the two apocalypses, see Nickelsburg, 1Enoch 1, 32 chapter one “weeks,” and the “plant of righteous judgment” in the third week is identified by all commentators as Abraham: 93:5.

Third, some of Lindars’ own arguments are poorly considered and open up his otherwise attractive solution to unnecessary criticism. 25 But if the “great beast” is not a ram but a different species, then the lamb phase is only an interlude, not a final state. 27 But what Lindars and Mitchell have both forgotten is that Lindars’ putative Greek translator has willfully chosen to read ‫ אמר‬in this manner for purely theological reasons. 28 With these clarifications, ነገር፿ = λόγος = ‫ אמר‬emerges as the only solution to the problem of 1En 90:38 that does not raise additional problems.

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