By Graeme Barker

This large learn files the long term human payment background of the Biferno Valley in central-southern Italy, from its earliest profession within the Stone Age correct as much as the current day. Integrating the recommendations of archaeology, historical past and geography, Barker indicates how payment within the Valley is inextricably associated with the parallel tale of panorama improvement, his subject matters and topics together with: techniques to Mediterranean panorama background; the trendy panorama; Methodologies of the Biferno Valley Survey; The average panorama and its evolution; Early prehsitoric cost; the 1st agricultural groups; Iron Age chiefdoms (c.1000-500 BC); Pentri, Frentani and the beginnings of urbanization (c.500--80 BC); Roman cities and territories (c.80 BC-600 AD); The evolution of hilltop villages (AD 600-1500); Feudalism and the `Southern query' (AD 1500 to the present).

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Extra resources for A Mediterranean Valley: Landscape Archaeology and Annales History in the Biferno Valley

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From spring to autumn it was also possible to cross the Matese from one altopiano to another, following the shepherd tracks that linked the mountains with the communities either side. 'Rugged and impracticable as the passage over the highest extremities of the Matese may seem, it is in use at almost every season of the year by the natives of the south and northern sides of the mountains, who drive their beasts of burden, laden with various articles of commerce or produce, close to the most elevated of its pinnacles.

The steepness of the topography and the soft and unstable nature of the geology combine to make this part of the Biferno landscape very liable to frane, or landslips (Figs. Ill and 112). "The main track winds for some miles through a series of hills so barren and repulsive to the eye, that I could fancy myself among the clay mountains of Basilicata' (Craven, 1838: 139). Some 20 kilometres from the sea, the Biferno river passes though a narrow gap in the hills at the site of the Ponte del Liscione.

Colleagues from Sheffield who joined the Biferno survey also continued working in Molise afterwards. John Lloyd, the project's Roman specialist (now at the University of Oxford), excavated the Samnite and Roman villa of Matrice during the first half of the 1980s, and Richard Hodges, the medieval specialist for the project and latterly Director of the British School at Rome, has been excavating at the medieval monastery of San Vincenzo al Volturno in the northern mountains of Molise ever since the completion of the Biferno Valley Survey (Hodges, 1993).

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