By Alberdina Houtman, E Staalduine-Sulman, Hans-Martin Kirn

What's the use of a Targum in a cultural environment the place Aramaic isn't really a typical language anymore? And why could Christians have an interest in a generally Jewish textual content in an differently anti-Jewish milieu? those and comparable questions have served as publications for Alberdina Houtman, Eveline van Staalduine-Sulman and Hans-Martin Kirn in bringing jointly the articles for the current booklet, which is composed of 3 elements: 1. makes use of and services of Targum in Europe; 2. modifying Targums and their Latin Translations; three. Targums and Christianity. some of the articles take care of the codicological and paratextual points of the suitable manuscripts and variations as witnesses in their cultural ancient events. The meant readership contains experts in Targum, Jewish and medieval reports, (church) historians, codicologists and (Christian) theologians.

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Sample text

G. in the reading of 2 Samuel 22. Local customs probably played a decisive role in the exact number of verses included in various liturgical books. 4 1. Haftarot. The first subcategory includes various collections of haftarot, the sections from the prophetic books that were selected to be read in the synagogue service (cf. Elbogen 1993, 143–149). 5 There are at least two types. M. M. Tanja, ‘Initial Observations Concerning the Text of Targum 2 Samuel 22 As Preserved in European Liturgical Manuscripts’ in this volume.

There are also manuscripts that provide the Hebrew and Aramaic text alternating, surrounded by commentaries. For example, ms Judah Nahum 43b (The Judah Levi Nahum Collection, Holon) provides the haftarot with parts from the midrashim, the commentaries of Rashi and some later commentaries. Some special phenomena among this subcategory are: Three verses, one verse. A variant of alternating Hebrew and Aramaic is found in several festival collections of the Targum. They start with the first three verses in Hebrew, followed by their corresponding verses in Aramaic, but afterwards alternate by verse.

They could easily be used by several people at the same time for biblical studies. Moreover, Ashkenaz is the only region where Targum Chronicles is found. So, the term Targum Writings means something different in other regions than Ashkenaz, and even in Ashkenaz itself the term varies. Some Eastern and Western manuscripts include Megillat Antiochus, an Aramaic rewriting of the first few chapters of 1 Maccabees. It was regularly used as the festival scroll for Purim and the Aramaic version seems to be part of the Targum collection.

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