By David Thurmond

Rome was once capable of help an enormous city inhabitants via offering it with the rudiments of human foodstuff within the type of processed meals. This quantity encompasses a cautious research of these foodstuff strategies. The paintings is geared up at the foundation of the presumed value of these meals, starting with the so-called Mediterranean Triad of cereals (particularly wheaten bread), olive oil and wine, then facing plant items equivalent to legumes, greens and culmination, then animal items, and finishing with the condiments (salts, sugars, acids, spices) that have been themselves the brokers for the protection of different meals. The paintings combines research of literary and archaeological facts from antiquity with that of conventional comparative practices and sleek nutrients technological know-how.

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White (1967): 32–5; White (1975): 75–77. 30 Spurr (1986): 79–82; Curtis (2001): 325–35. Fig. 2. The ancient threshing sledge (tribulum) as seen from the bottom. Flints or metal studs are embedded in the bottom, friction from which threshes wheat as the sledge is dragged over the ears. The insert is a detail of the flints. (From Storck and Teague (1952): Fig. 17. Courtesy of University of Minnesota Press). 24 chapter one cereals 25 B A Fig. 3A. Winnowing shovel (ventilabrum) with which threshed wheat is thrown into the air so that chaff is blown away by breezes.

Victor, De Caes. Epit. 6; Josephus, Bell. Iud. 383 & 386. 46 The generic name of the dehusked grain resulting from a first crushing in a mortar, ptisanê in Greek, (p)tisana in Latin, is applied to the groats as well as the porridge made from them. During this process of dehusking, the grain may simultaneously be roughly crushed, but perhaps not even so finely as rough groats. 47 That ‘pounding’ was in fact the original form of milling in Rome is assured by the etymological connection of these terms with the act of pounding which produced them and most prominently by that of the eventual name for the Roman millerbaker, pistor, with the act: pistor means nothing more nor less etymologically than ‘pounder’.

82 F. Antonelli, G. Nappi and L. 2 (2001): 167–89. cereals 45 faces. 83 A number of bronze weapons was found in one of the bakeries in Ostia, but some of the bronze articles identified as lance heads are now thought to be dosage cones, fitted into the square holes in the bedstone and cemented with lead, remains of which have also been found. Precisely how they controlled the flow of grain is unknown, but it may well be that their points were inserted into the bottom of a hopper suspended over the running stone.

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