By Ruark A.E.

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10) for the case of a space-dependent wave function ψ(x, t). 28) be energy. 29a) E+ 0 0 E− a = |a|2 E+ + |b|2 E− . 29b) Indeed, this is the weighted average of energy. For H given in a different representation, with a different choice of basis states, one finds the same expectation value, as will be checked at the end of Sect. 1. The only energy measurement that we have met so far is that of the Zeeman effect; therefore, let us find the expectation value of energy for this case. 3 Expectation Values 23 B-field turned on because the Zeeman splitting leaves the mean energy of the mstates unaffected.

4) with aμ = 12 (|g| − 2). 16591790(65) × 10−3 . 5) The numbers in parentheses are the standard error in the last two digits. 6) deviates from zero by more than three standard deviations. This is either due to exp unrecognized errors in aμ or aμtheor , or is a hint to new physics beyond the standard model. 2 Light Scattering Our second example is from atomic physics. We study the resonant scattering of light on atoms, without and with an externally applied magnetic field. 36 4 Experiments on Spin Precession Fig.

We study the resonant scattering of light on atoms, without and with an externally applied magnetic field. 36 4 Experiments on Spin Precession Fig. 2 Optical transitions between excited state and ground state of an atom, without and with an external B-field applied. The emitted σ + and σ − light is left and right circularly polarized, π light is linearly polarized Light scattering by atoms can be studied without sophisticated equipment. One places a piece of alkali metal into a glass bulb and, if necessary after moderate heating, irradiates the evaporated atoms with a beam of light, see Fig.

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